Some Common Terms
ACCEPTANCE: The date when both parties, seller and buyer, have agreed to and completed signing and/or initialing the contract.
ADJUSTABLE RATE MORTGAGE (ARM): A mortgage that permits the lender to adjust the mortgage's interest rate periodically on the basis of changes in a specified index. Interest rates may move up or down, as market conditions change.
AMORTIZED LOAN: A loan, which is paid in equal installments during its term.
A.P.R. (ANNUAL PERCENTAGE RATE): A term used in the Truth in Lending Act. It represents the relationship of the total finance charge (interest, discount points, origination fees, loan broker, commission, etc.) to the amount of the loan.
APPRAISAL: A real estate appraisal is an estimate of the market value of a piece of real estate based upon a variety of factors. An appraisal is conducted by a real estate appraiser, who is specifically trained to estimate the market value of real estate, and is licensed to do so. When buying a house or selling a house, a real estate appraisal is a useful tool, but it is also used by mortgage lenders to determine whether the property has a high enough market value to provide adequate security for the mortgage loan. It is not an exact science.
APPRECIATION: An increase in the value of a property due to changes in market conditions or other causes. The opposite of depreciation.
ASSUMABLE MORTGAGE: Purchaser takes ownership to real estate encumbered by an existing mortgage and assumes responsibility as the guarantor for the unpaid balance of the mortgage.
BILL OF SALE: Document used to transfer title (ownership) of personal property.
CLOSING STATEMENT (HUD1): A financial statement rendered to the buyer and seller at the time of transfer of ownership, giving an account of all funds received or expended.
CLOUD ON TITLE: Any condition that affects the clear title to real property.
COMPARABLE SALES: Sales that have similar characteristics as the subject property and are used for analysis in the appraisal process.
CONTRACT: An agreement to do or not to do a certain thing.
CONSIDERATION: Anything of value to induce another to enter into a contract, i.e., money, services, a promise.
DEED: Written instrument, which when properly executed and delivered, conveys title to real property.
DISCOUNT POINTS: A loan fee charged by a lender of FHA, VA or conventional loans to increase the yield on the investment. One point = 1% of the loan amount.
EASEMENT: The right to use the land of another. A common easement is one utilized by utility companies to service electricity, water, etc.
ENCUMBRANCE: Anything that burdens (limits) the fee title to property, such as a lien, easement, or restriction of any kind.
EQUITY: The value of real estate over and above the liens against it. It is obtained by subtracting the total liens from the value.
ESCROW PAYMENT: That portion of a mortgagor’s monthly payment held in trust by the lender to pay for taxes, hazard insurance, mortgage insurance, lease payments and other items as they become due.
FANNIE MAE: Nickname for Federal National Mortgage Corporation (FNMA), a tax-paying corporation created by congress to support the secondary mortgages insured by FHA or guaranteed by VA, as well as conventional home mortgages.
FEDERAL HOUSING ADMINISTRATION (FHA): An agency of the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD). Its main activity is the insuring of residential mortgage loans made by private lenders. The FHA sets standards for construction and underwriting but does not lend money or plan or construct housing.
FHA INSURED MORTGAGE: A mortgage under which the Federal Housing Administration insures loans made, according to its regulations
FIXED RATE MORTGAGE: A loan that fixes the interest rate at a prescribed rate for the duration of the loan.
FORECLOSURE: Procedure whereby property pledges as security for a debt is sold to pay the debt in the event of default.
FREDDIE MAC: Nickname for Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation (FHLMC), a federally controlled and operated corporation to support the secondary mortgage market. It purchases and sells residential conventional home mortgages.
GRADUATED PAYMENT MORTGAGE: Any loan where the borrower pays a portion of the interest due each month during the first few years of the loan. The payment increases gradually during the first few years to the amount necessary to fully amortize the loan during its life.
LEASE PURCHASE AGREEMENT: Buyer makes a deposit for future purchases of a property with the right to lease the property for the interim.
LOAN TO VALUE RATION (LTV): The ratio of the mortgage loan principal (amount borrowed) to the property’s appraised value (selling price). Example – on a $100,000 home, with a mortgage loan principal of $80,000 the loan to value ratio is 80%.
MORTGAGE: A legal document that pledges a property to the lender as security for payment of a debt.
MORTGAGE INSURANCE PREMIUM (MIP): The amount paid by a mortgagor for mortgage insurance. This insurance protects the investor from possible loss in the event of a borrower’s default on a loan.
MORTGAGEE: The lender of money.
MORTGAGOR: The borrower of money.
NOTE: A written promise to pay a certain amount of money.
ORIGINATION FEE: A fee paid to the mortgagee for paying the mortgage before it becomes due. Also known as prepayment fee or reinvestment fee.
PRIVATE MORTGAGE INSURANCE (PMI): See Mortgage Insurance Premium.
PROMISSORY NOTE: A written contract containing a promise to pay a definite amount of money at a definite future time.
REALTOR®: A member of local and state real estate boards, which are affiliated with the National Association of Realtors (NAR).
RENT WITH OPTION: A contract, which gives one the right to lease property at a certain sum with the option to purchase at a future date.
TENANCY IN COMMON: Ownership by two or more persons who hold an undivided interest without right of survivorship. (In event of the death of one owner, his/her share will pass to his/her heirs.)
TITLE INSURANCE: An insurance policy which protects the insured (purchaser or lender) against loss arising from defects in the title.